四大航运中心之比较

发布时间:2013-06-17 07:43:57  来源:航运界     专家:亿海蓝

  德鲁里上海办公室运营一年有余。自从搬来上海后‘国际航运中心’这一概念一直被提起:公司刚到上海时正好碰上新华社指数中心调研开发“国际航运中心发展指数”,各个航运会议上关于上海航运中心发展的议题,上海市政府以及中央提供的各式各样的政策优惠。上海和其他国际海运中心比较,我们处在什么位置?
  
  来上海之前,分别在伦敦和新加坡工作生活过。通过本人的切身体会和与同行朋友的交流,经过简单整理,在这里想分享一下对这几个航运中心城市的体会。欢迎在这些城市以及其他航运中心工作过的同行分享其看法。
  
  
  伦敦 
  
  伦敦是老牌金融和航运中心。 16到18世纪英国逐渐发展了其以贸易为主的经济模式,并且建立了海运霸权。 与贸易与航运相关的行业在同一时期蓬勃发展: 保险业、法律仲裁、报纸媒体以及金融业。这些行业都为英国的贸易服务着,直到三百年后的今天,我们还是能够在伦敦切身体会到这些行业对英国经济以及世界经济的影响。
  
  早年的大批海外殖民地使得英国的金融机构、司法仲裁机构不仅在英国,在大部分英联邦国家都继续沿用着英国的体制,为伦敦的金融航运中心的国际地位提供坚实的基础。
  
  船舶经纪业的重心在今天也还是在伦敦,例如大宗散货的市场,主要是在亚洲,但市场也还是跟随着伦敦的市场时间走,足以体现市场的惯性以及伦敦在航运市场中的地位。
  
  
  新加坡
  
  做为英联邦的一员,很多体制与伦敦十分相似。新加坡作为一个建国不到60年的国家,国土面积不足 800平方公里(大约为上海面积的1/9), 经过飞速的发展,现在成为全球重要金融、港口、航运中心。 新加坡的经济依附于国际贸易,在世界经济放缓的时候必然受影响,但其还是以超平均的速度增长着。
  
  新加坡作为港口城市,港口国家,有着优越的地理位置,安全的环境,稳定的政治形式,稳定的经济发展,这些都让新加坡吸引国际航运公司。
  
  新加坡有两个业界人都有同感的特征: 1) 在雷曼兄弟倒台后,每天都有人把在欧洲和美洲的企业家来新加坡注册公司。2) 由于新加坡国土面积小,商业中心更是集中,约见客户或者组织业内的活动大都可以走路到达,为‘近距离交流’带来很多便利。
  
  Capt Mrityunjay Dhawal, APMT项目管理总监  : 如果看靠泊次数与频率,新加坡是世界上最忙的港口。不仅是因为船舶需要装卸货物,更是因为港口提供的各种服务。优越的地理位置,船只不需要绕道其他码头去获取服务。
  
  虽然贸易量本身大都不在新加坡,但很多公司还是在新加坡建立亚洲区域的运营总部,这得益于其政府的支持政策、透明的监管机制、高效经济的税收制度。同样的原因,与航运相关的服务业也都在新加坡设有运营机构。这些都为新加坡的航运中心地位提供了
  
  
  香港
  
  在贸易方面香港的定位为通往中国大陆的大门,在金融、法律等方面,作为前英属地区,其大部分体系也建立在英国的传统制度上,执行着英国的仲裁与市场规则,这样的一个市场吸引了很多的经营商。现在在政治上香港向大陆靠近,市场竞争方面,南有新加坡、北有上海,两者在金融和航运方面都与香港成一定程度上的竞争关系。
  
  Capt Pappu Santry, NEPA项目与投资公司常务董事,认为这一功能被过度强调了,香港应该并且可以更独立的发展其航运中心的位置。在我建立了NEPA Project服务的六年里,我一直都是定位公司为:立足于中国的大门口,放眼于中国及其以外的市场。 与其竞争者新加坡相比,除了稳定的政策、透明的市场,香港的货币与美元直接挂钩,航运市场是美元市场,减少了货币波动的风险。但是香港的稳定是依靠于大陆。而新加坡的发展并不依附于另一个国家,新加坡有更大的自由度去发展其航运经济中心。
  
  
  
  上海
  
  在上海的时间似乎还太短,还有航运圈里太多的地方要去体会。在这里我们有政府的大力支持,我们有广阔的腹地,但是我们也需要一个平衡的、全面发展的航运生态系统。这里有一个‘非完全’统计的航运系统单:
  
  · 船东/船舶管理与运营 
  · 船级社/船舶检验与注册
  · 金融/法律/保险
  · 经纪/代理
  · 教育
  · 当地政府/港口当局
  · 其他配套设施和相关的组织
  
  航运是一个国际化的行业,即使各国都有一定程度cabotage protection。资金和人才是任何市场和行业必须的要素,资金和人才一样,流向给其最高回报的地方。为资金,我们需要建立稳定、透明、强大的运营环境:金融/法律/保险系统。为人才,我们需要为其提供发展的空间,舒适的生活方式。
  
  假设我们问一个国际投资商:你是否会把你的资金投在中国,如果他的生意是和中国贸易相关的,他的答案一定是肯定的。如果他的生意不是直接和中国贸易相关,我很难想象他会把公司开到中国。首先我们的货币还不能自由兑换,以我们的现状我也没有自信说我们的体制比其他的航运中心更透明。
  
  假设我们问一个国际航运人(中国国籍或者非中国国籍):如果工作机会都相等,你是否会考虑在中国生活工作。 这个问题就复杂了。除了收入以外,他需要考虑自己的未来在业内的发展,家人是否能在国内(或者上海)得到很好的照顾-医疗社会服务, 子女是否有能够受到良好的教育(不一定是海运方面的教育)。每个人的情况都不同,如果我在这里为真正国际化的人做一个大胆的泛泛的回答,我相信大多数人在中短期都愿意在上海发展,但是对长期生活发展持观望态度。
                                                                             
  如果我以上的猜测与评论在一定程度上是准确的,那么我们上海离真正的国际化航运与金融中心还有一定的距离。克服这个距离不仅需要我们航运界航运人的努力,更需要我们提高改进我们的大社会环境。
  
  我们的起点是中国巨大的贸易量,如果我们就满足于这样的状况,那么上海已经做得很好了。如果我们希望成为国际航运业的聚集点不只是中国的,那么我们已经有了一个很好的起点。
  
  
  
  I have moved to Shanghai for more than a year now. Invited by http://www.ship.sh/ to write something for their column, the topic of ‘shipping clusters’ has been mentioned in conference, and conversation; Xinhua Index Agent was also exploring feasibility and way to develop a Shipping cities index; local and central government is supportive to such concept. Where does Shanghai stand as an International Shipping Hub?
  
  Before Shanghai, I have lived in London and Singapore. Based on my own observation plus conversation with friends living the same and other shipping hubs, here is a small piece on the topic to share. Welcome comments and debates.
  
  
  
  London
  
  London is a long-established financial and shipping centre. Between 16th and 18th centuries, Britain has developed as a trade oriented economy and established its shipping supremacy. Trade and shipping related industries have also flourished:  Finance, Insurance, Newspaper/Media and legislation industries. Those industry have served UK trade, economy , even today, after 300 years, we are still benefited from those developed system. 
  
  Widely-spread colonial territories have brought UK legal, financial system to countries far beyond the Islands: all common wealth countries are using the same system. It provides an efficient and effective trading platform, and it sets solid foundation for London as an international shipping hub. 
  
  Brokerage industry is still London-centric. Even though trade for dry bulk commodities are concentrated in Asia, the market is still following London, indicating the importance of London.
  
  “You find no man, at all intellectual, who is willing to leave London. No, Sir, when a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford.”
  -- Samuel Johnson
  
  
  Singapore
  
  Singapore as one of the Common wealth counties, practices many of the UK system. Singapore is a young country with less than 60 years self-governing history. Size of its territory is about 1/9 of size of Shanghai. Fast development over a short period of time, Singapore has become one of the key centre for Finance and Shipping industries in global context. Singapore’s economy is closely related to world economy, therefore it would naturally be affected by any global slowdown, but it still maintain an above average growth rate even during downturns. 
  
  Capt Mrityunjay Dhawal, Head of project management at APMT : In terms of number of vessel calls, Singapore is the highest in the world which also makes it the busiest port in the world. Vessels do not call Singapore just for offloading or loading cargo, they call for many other services that are available in the port. The port is located on the busy route connecting Far east to rest of Asia, Europe and Africa. The vessels using this route do not have to take a detour to call this port, which makes it very cost effective for ship operators to make a port call for support services.
  The shipping companies have used the conductive policies of Singapore to set up offices in this island country. The offices are primarily head offices or controlling regional offices of shipping lines. Although there is not much direct business available in Singapore for these lines, they have however preferred to set up base here due to various other support services available here. Namely finance, classification societies, insurances, lawyers. Adding to this is friendly tax policies, liberal government, more importantly transparent, fast and honest judicial system. Since the head offices or decision making offices are set up in Singapore, it has given rise to various support industry that has mushroomed to cater to shipping needs, namely consultancy, outsourcing, surveyors, training and H/R. This makes it a unique shipping hub as compared to the rest of the ports in the world”
  
  Hong Kong
  
  Hong Kong is the gateway to Mainland China. Its finance and legislation system is also from the UK, market is comfortable with its UK heritage and has attracted many businesses. Now Hong Kong is closer to China politically, and market wise, there is competition from Singapore and Shanghai in both financial and shipping aspects.
  
  Capt Pappu Santry, Director of NEPA Investment and Projects, considers that Hong Kong possibly tries too much to be just the doorstep than becoming independent enough to look beyond that. Almost all of business prospects in the last 6 year since Capt Santry started Nepa Projects have been on the basis that NEPA explore the world beyond China whilst sitting at its doorstep for every other right reason except that Hong Kong is close to China.  
  
  Comparing to its competitor Singapore, Hong Kong has one more advantage, USD backed currency. It means less currency exchange fluctuation. However Hong Kong’s stability is relying on the Mainland. Singapore on the other hand, does not have to be doorway to one country and can look further to be the strategic location leader who can come to the level of dictating terms to the other hubs in the area.
  
  
  
  Shanghai
  
  It seems Shanghai is still new to me and there are many aspects about our shipping communities need to be explored. We have government support and we have cargo base and the hinterland, but shipping is also an ecosystem that we need a balanced and comprehensive development. I have an incomplete list about shipping hub ecosystem: 
  
  
  · Owners / operators / managers
  · Classification Societies / Surveyors / Ship registration
  · Finance / law / insurance 
  · Brokers / agents
  · Education
  · Local government / port authorities
  · Other supporting facilities and related societies
  
  Shipping is a truly international business, even though cabotage protection exists in every nation. Capital and human capital are the necessary element for any industry and any market, and they have the same character: (human) capital flows to where gives it the best return. For capital, we need a robust, stable, and transparent system for it: Legal, Finance, Insurance.  For human capital, we need to provide enough space for it to develop and need to provide comfortable life style. 
  
  Assuming we ask an international investor: will you invest your capital in China? If his business is China related, the answer will certainly be yes. If his business is not directly related to China market, it would be very difficult to imagine s/he will send the investment to China. Firstly, our money market is open to free exchange; secondly, we don’t have the confidence yet to say that we are more transparent than other shipping hubs.
  
  Assuming we ask an international shipping person: will you move to Shanghai for career and settling for life? This is a far more complicated question than last one. Apart from salary package consideration, s/he needs to consider her/his long term career development, to consider if the country/city have solid social infrastructure to provide a comfortable living environment to the family,  to consider if the children can have good education in the city. Everyone will priorities different, if I make a very bold and generalised judgement here: most people’s answer would be: yes for short and medium term; and for long term decision, ‘open’ would be the best guess.
  
  If my wild guess is considered accurate to a limited extend, then Shanghai is still some way off from being a truly international shipping hub. To close this gap, it needs the effort from shipping people, shipping community, but it also requires improvement in a bigger environment. 
  
  We have a good starting point – the sheer volume of China trade, if we are content with being the shipping and finance hub for China, then Shanghai is already there. If we want to compete in the global content, we need to leverage on our good starting point.